“ssl證書指紋算法”

The most important part of an SSL certificate is that it is digitally signed by a trusted CA, like DigiCert. Anyone can create a certificate, but browsers only trust certificates that come from an organization on their list trusted CAs. Browsers come with a pre-installed list of trusted CAs, known as the Trusted Root CA store. In order to be added to the Trusted Root CA store and thus become a Certificate Authority, a company must comply with and be audited against security and authentication standards established by the browsers.

1999年,Jomax Technologies的一群員工在腦力激盪會議時,決定為公司改一個更有紀念意義的名字。一名員工說:「把公司名改為Big Daddy好嗎?」可惜這個域名已經被人佔用。帕森斯提議說:「若是改為Go Daddy,那又如何?」這個域名還未被人註冊,帕森斯於是把其買下。帕森斯指他們挺喜歡這個新名字,因為不僅易記,讀起來也相當有趣,引人發笑。公司於2006年2月把其品牌名稱從 Go Daddy[5] 易名為 GoDaddy。[6]

Our standard SAN SSL Certificate covers up to 5 websites. You can secure more websites for a fee in increments of 5. For example, a single SAN SSL can protect up to 5 sites, 10 sites, 15 sites, etc. The maximum number of websites that can be secured by one SAN SSL is 100.

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GoDaddy由鲍伯·帕森斯創辦。帕森斯於1990年代中旬把其金融軟件服務公司Parsons Technology, Inc.售予Intuit,獲得數百萬美元後決定退休。及至1997年,他靜極思動,創辦了Jomax Technologies,即是其後來的GoDaddy Group Inc.。GoDaddy曾獲多間知名的創業投資基金公司注資,包括KKR、Silver Lake及Technology Crossover Ventures。[4]

要使用 SSL 傳輸功能, 企業組織需要申請並在其伺服器上安裝 SSL 證書. 根據申請的數碼證書種類, 企業組織需要經過不同級別的審核. 一旦證書安裝完畢, 就能夠通過 HTTPS 來訪問網站, 通過這樣的網址訪問, 會告訴伺服器與瀏覽器間建立安全的連接. 連接的時候瀏覽器將收到這個網站的 SSL 憑證並且檢驗它是否過期、它是否是已經被瀏覽器信任的發證中心所核發的, 以及它是否如核發時所登記的內容被該網站使用. 假如有任何一項檢查不通過, 瀏覽器將顯示一個警告訊息給使用者. 一旦當安全連接建立完畢, 服務器與瀏覽器之間的所有數據傳輸都是安全可靠的. 瀏覽器會以幾個明顯的信任指標讓您的客戶知道他們目前正在訪問一個受 SSL 加密保護狀態下的網站:

编辑Apache根目录下 conf/httpd.conf 文件,找到 #LoadModule ssl_module modules/mod_ssl.so和#Include conf/extra/httpd-ssl.conf,去掉前面的#号注释;如果尚未安装OpenSSL,它可以使用yum来安装,yum install mod_ssl openssl,安装完毕后,会自动生成 /etc/httpd/conf.d/ssl.conf 文件!将上述两个文件引入到httpd.conf文件中;编辑Apache根目录下 conf/httpd-ssl.conf 或者 conf.d/ssl.conf文件,修改如下内容:

Once you receive the SSL certificate, you install it on your server. You also install an intermediate certificate that establishes the credibility of your SSL Certificate by tying it to your CA’s root certificate. The instructions for installing and testing your certificate will be different depending on your server.

注意: 对于“公用名称”,键入 Tableau Server 名称。Tableau Server 名称是将用于访问 Tableau Server 的 URL。举例来说,如果通过在浏览器的地址栏中键入 tableau.example.com 来访问 Tableau Server,则 tableau.example.com 是公用名称。如果公用名称未解析为服务器名称,则在浏览器或 Tableau Desktop 尝试连接到 Tableau Server 时将发生错误。

2011年12月22日,在美國社交新聞網站Reddit上展開一項抗議活動[38],探討美國《網絡反盜版法案》 (SOPA)的支持者身份,當中包括GoDaddy。其後,GoDaddy更發表了支持該法案的聲明,引發網民大表不滿,更發起抵制並將域名移離GoDaddy的行動。該項建議旋即傳遍網上,大獲支持,Reddit甚至倡議將2011年12月29日定為「抵制GoDaddy日」[39]。大力支持該項行動的其中一人是Cheezburger行政總裁Ben Huh,他表明一旦GoDaddy繼續支持SOPA,Cheezburger便會把至少1,000個域名移走[40]。 維基百科創辦人吉米·威爾斯亦宣布無法認同GoDaddy在SOPA法案的立場,認為「不能接受」,會把維基旗下所有域名從GoDaddy移除[41]。經過在Reddit上展開的一項短期抗議行動後,圖片分享網站imgur負責人Alan Schaaf亦把其域名移離GoDaddy[42]。

每張HiNet UC SSL 憑證預設可記載3個不同的完全吻合網域名稱(Fully Qualified Domain Name)於憑證主體別名擴充欄位,並可視需要於首次購買時再額外申購增加註記的完全吻合網域名稱數量最多包含99個,方便企業需要同時架設多個SSL網站時選用以節省建置經費。此種憑證也稱為聯合通訊伺服器憑證,諸如Unified Communication Server、Lync Server 、Exchange Server可以使用。

為什麼我會選擇對移動應用程序進行SSL MITM,因為為了查看和模糊移動應用程序的網路服務調用,我需要使用攔截代理(如BurpSuite或ZAP)。當使用代理攔截SSL通信時,來自客戶端的SSL連接會在代理處被終止。默認情況下,由Burp等工具生成的自簽名證書將不具有有效的信任鏈,並且如果證書無法驗證為可信,則大多數移動應用程序將終止連接,而不會通過不安全的渠道進行連接。所有這4中技術的共同目標,就是試圖讓移動應用程序信任攔截代理提供的證書。

在访问hotmail的时候会跳转到login.live.com,这时IE浏览器上会有一个小锁头,点一下那个小锁头再点击里面的“查看证书”就会出现上图的证书窗口,这里面我们可以看到这个证书只有一个用途——向远程计算机证明身份信息,证书的用途会有很多,SSL只是其中之一。在“颁发给”这一项就是这个证书在申请时绑定的域名;下面的“颁发者”是证书的颁发机构。最下面的两个日期是证书申请时间以及过期的时间。这里我们可以注意一下“颁发者”的信息,里面有“Extended Validation SSL”的字样,表明了这个证书是一个EV SSL证书(扩展验证SSL证书),EV SSL证书有个特点就是可以让浏览器的地址栏变绿,同时显示出来证书所属公司的名称,如下图所示:

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All browsers have the capability to interact with secured web servers using the SSL protocol. However, the browser and the server need what is called an SSL Certificate to be able to establish a secure connection.

Because SSL is still the better known, more commonly used term, DigiCert uses SSL when referring to certificates or describing how transmitted data is secured. When you purchase an SSL Certificate from us (e.g., Standard SSL, Extended Validation SSL, etc.), you are actually getting a TLS Certificate (RSA or ECC).

Browser checks the certificate root against a list of trusted CAs and that the certificate is unexpired, unrevoked, and that its common name is valid for the website that it is connecting to. If the browser trusts the certificate, it creates, encrypts, and sends back a symmetric session key using the server’s public key.

When a browser attempts to access a website that is secured by SSL, the browser and the web server establish an SSL connection using a process called an “SSL Handshake” (see diagram below). Note that the SSL Handshake is invisible to the user and happens instantaneously.

日前,一位自称StartCom前雇员的人士披露,沃通(WoSign)在2015年11月秘密收购了StartCom,根据以色列企业登记信息,StartCom现在的所有人是中国籍的Gaohua Wang(沃通CEO王高华)。在Mozilla安全邮件列表有关沃通CA事件的讨论中,StartCom CA 和 WoSign CA 被发现关系密切,两者之间有交叉签名,共享了基础设施,如果浏览器不信任沃通CA,那么只要StartCom CA仍然被信任,任何沃通CA签发的证书仍然被视为是有效的。http://www.cnbeta.com/articles/535661.htm

The SSL protocol has always been used to encrypt and secure transmitted data. Each time a new and more secure version was released, only the version number was altered to reflect the change (e.g., SSLv2.0). However, when the time came to update from SSLv3.0, instead of calling the new version SSLv4.0, it was renamed TLSv1.0. We are currently on TLSv1.2.

Google 认为,赛门铁克内部审计并不彻底,它花了几分钟就从 Certificate Transparency日志里发现了更多有问题的证书。赛门铁克随后证实,它发现了76个域名的164个问题证书,2456个未注册域名证书。Google批评赛门铁克连内部审计都做不好。它要求从2016年6月1日起,赛门铁克颁发的所有证书都必须支持Certificate Transparency,不支持的赛门铁克新颁发证书可能会在使用Google产品时出现问题。Google 要求赛门铁克更新他们的报告,详细解释如何采取措施阻止类似事件发生。

(Optional) If the certificate will be used as a root CA for an SSL-inspecting web filter or to allow the browser to validate the full digital certificate chain of servers, check the Use this certificate as an HTTPS certificate authority box.

9、对于 Symantec、GeoTrust、TrustAsia 的各类 SSL 证书,主域名例如 upyun.com 已经成功申请证书,则此证书中已默认添加了 www.upyun.com,即 www.upyun.com 可直接使用此证书,无需重复申请;同理使用 www.upyun.com 申请的证书,主域名 upyun.com 也可使用(上述只针对主域名生效,例如用域名 abc.upyun.com 申请的证书,则 www.abc.upyu.com 不可使用,需要重新申请)。

Your domain name is how people find you online, so choosing the right one for your website can seem overwhelming at first. But don’t get intimidated — as the largest domain registrar, we’re here to help you get online.

SSL certificates have a key pair: a public and a private key. These keys work together to establish an encrypted connection. The certificate also contains what is called the “subject,” which is the identity of the certificate/website owner.

A Subject Alternative Name (SAN) SSL Certificate offers the same encryption as other SSLs but protects multiple sites. So you can use one SAN Certificate to secure LilysBikes.com, LilysBikeShop.com and Lilys.bike. The information your customers submit to any of them will be safe.

^ 移至: 8.0 8.1 8.2 Polk, Tim; McKay, Terry; Chokhani, Santosh. Guidelines for the Selection, Configuration, and Use of Transport Layer Security (TLS) Implementations (PDF). National Institute of Standards and Technology: 67. April 2014 [2014-05-07].

Unless you sell things on your personal website, a Standard SSL (DV) is fine. This is also true for informational business sites. eCommerce websites should use a single-domain Standard SSL (DV) or Premium SSL (EV).

选购SSL证书不能仅仅考虑产品比价,持续、专业的售后服务才是产品选型的重点。SSL证书产品选型的合理性及应用部署的专业性,将直接影响产品应用的整体安全性能。沃通CA专注数字证书行业十余年,经过多年的打磨,已经拥有一支专业化的客户服务和技术支持团队,以及一套完善的客户服务体系。为用户提供从售前咨询、需求分析、产品推荐,到证书申请、应用部署、安全检测等全流程顾问式服务,7×24小时响应用户需求,帮助用户少走弯路,正确实施HTTPS加密。

GoDaddy’s Premium EV SSL Certificate involves the most extensive vetting process. We verify the control of the domain and legitimacy of your company by validating the legal name, address, phone number and other business information. The process takes about 30 days, but we’ve got you covered during that time. EV SSL Certs come with a free Standard SSL to use during the vetting process, so you can keep your transactions secure while you wait.

當您選擇在您的網頁伺服器上啟動SSL時,您將被提示必須填寫幾個關於您伺服器的身份確認問題(例如,您的伺服器網址)和您的公司資料(例如,您的公司名稱和位置),然後您的網頁伺服器將建立兩把密鑰,一把私鑰和一把公鑰,您的私鑰之所以如此稱呼的原因是它是用來維持私密性與安全性的,這個公鑰則不需去作保密並且還置放在憑證需求檔(Certificate Signing Request,簡稱CSR)裡,它是一個包含您詳細資料的檔案,您必須將此CSR傳送給認證中心,透過 SSL 憑證申請程序,發證中心(Certification Authority)將驗證您的詳細資料然後核發一個包含您詳細資料的憑證,如此您才被允許使用SSL。

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